Colorful Symbioses

Lichen are a classic example of symbiosis. A fungus teams up with an algae or a cyanobacteria, the fungus use their digestive powers to extract nutrients from just about anything while also creating a nice home for the algae or cyanobacteria to turn sunlight into energy. They give and take, and together they can thrive in places where little else survives. Well, it turns out there is another player. Recent research shows that many lichens also contain a third symbiont, a unicellular yeast! The yeast produces an acid that may protect the whole threesome from attack by other microbes. (See this great article about how natural history observations led to this discovery). As much as we often focus on clashes in nature, the predator and prey, the host and parasite, the fierce competitors, it’s easy to forget that the origins of eukaryotic life (the group of organisms that contains all plants, animals, fungi) was made possible by a symbiosis between two different types of bacteria. And studies using new molecular tools are increasingly finding elaborate webs of microbial symbioses across the tree of life, and not a single bird, flower, or beetle could survive without these complex relationships. I honor of these new discoveries, here are some beautiful products of lichenous partnerships I’ve photographed in Michigan, Ontario, South Carolina, and Arizona:201312182015041220150524-320150524-220150528-220150528-320150528-4201508172014032820150528-520150311-220151008-5

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